Geocaching Scavenger Hunts

Technology is impacting our lives in many ways. Even treasure hunt games and Easter egg hunts are going high-tech.


Geocaching is a high-tech treasure hunt game that combines cleverly hidden containers with a little help from technology. Basically, participants start by visiting the official global GPS cache hunt site, Geocaching. Players, called geocachers, search the website for exisiting treasures or add new treasure hunts.

Players use Global Positioning Systems (GPS) enabled mobile phones or devices to navigate to the treasure location by using coordinates and clues revealed on the Internet. The cleverly hidden containers, also known as caches, can be filled with tiny trinkets, treasures or GPS coordinates to other locations and can be located anywhere in the world. There are currently more than 1 million active geocaches around the world today.

Geocaching Basics

  • Visit the Geocaching website , the official global GPS cache hunt site, and register for a free membership. Premium memberships are also available.
  • Click the “Hide and See a Cache” link.
  • Enter a zip code and click “search.”
  • Select a cache from the listing.
  • Users must be logged in to see exact details of the cache.
  • Once a particular cache is selected, print the information found online. Some players create logbooks with the printed cache information and bring it on the hunt.
  • Enter the cache coordinates into the GPS and you are on your way!
  • Be sure to bring a pencil or pen, waterproof containers and gloves to protect your hands.

Players pinpoint the location with the help of GPS technology. While the GPS guides the geocachers to a location, the GPS coordinates do not pinpoint the exact location of the cache. Hunting and detective skills are often needed to find the hidden stash.


Caches can be hidden above or below ground, inside or outside of buildings, in trees or under rocks. Caches often contain a logbook or logsheet with information and notes from the owner as well as visitors who have located the find. Some containers include trackable coins called Geocoins or Groundspeak Travel Bugs, tags with unique codes that travel from cache to cache. Weapons, drugs, alcohol and food should not be placed in the cache.

Once the hidden cache is located, sign the logbook located inside the cache and snap a few photographs. When a trinket or treasure from the cache is removed, players must leave something of equal or greater value and return the cache to its hidden location for the next player. Share your scavenger hunt experience and photos with other players on the Internet.

Easter Egg Geocaching

Many people around the country are participating in a Easter egg hunt with a modern-day, high-tech twist. Traditional hide-and-seek Easter egg hunts are being combined with geocaching. Youngsters search for chocolate bunnies and colorful jelly beans while adults search for new caches. Hunters typically receive a set of coordinates at the beginning of the event. Participants search for the eggs which usually hold the coordinates for the next location.

For many people, finding a hidden treasure is the ultimate goal of a scavenger hunt. But for others, the ultimate thrill of the game is the hunt itself. Anyone can participate in this family-friendly activity. Whether a player is young, old or somewhere in between, geocaching is a fun way to enjoy the outdoors, explore nature and have fun.

If you are looking for some tips on GPS devices, please read Top Portable GPS Models for further information.

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Free Online Storage

online storage

Microsoft Sky Drive for File Storage

Microsoft's Sky Drive is available free to anyone. All the user needs is a Windows Live account, which is also free. Once the user has created his or her Windows Live account, he or she can begin uploading files. Each user is provided with 25GB of free online backup storage. Once the user logs into Sky Drive, they have the option of creating folders to organize data. When creating a folder, the user has the option of selecting who can access the contents of the folder. For example, the folder can be restricted to only the creator, or can be shared with others.

Key Benefits of Sky Drive

One of the best benefits of Sky Drive's online storage is that it can be accessed anywhere the user has a computer and Internet connection. The user does not have to worry about forgetting their USB flash drive or external drive at home. Another benefit of Sky Drive is it is provided by Microsoft, a stable company that is sure to be around for years to come, so the user does not have to worry about the company shutting down and losing access to data.

Microsoft Live Mesh for Online Storage and Synchronization

Microsoft's Live Mesh is another free online storage utility similar to Sky Drive with several key exceptions. Live Mesh not only allows the user to upload files, but those files can be synchronized with with multiple devices including the user's PC, laptop, or Mac. Live Mesh's synchronization capability makes it much easier to keep data up to date across multiple devices. Live Mesh also features a live desktop on the web where the user can view all their folders in one centralized location.

Remote Access from Any Location

Live Mesh also has another handy remote access feature. Live Mesh provides the user with a live desktop and can connect to another computer remotely. Live Mesh's remote access capability allows the user to access their desktop at home from any location as if they were sitting in front of their home PC or Macintosh.

Taking Advantage of Online Free Storage

Microsoft's Sky Drive and Live Mesh offer free online storage alternatives. Whether the user needs the large storage capacity of Sky Drive or file synchronization in Live Mesh, both provide a centralized location for data that can be accessed anywhere, anytime.These free tools will help users achieve greater flexibility, productivity, and economy.

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Funny Keywords Used in Search Engines

funny keywords

With the online market as saturated as it is, many web developers spend every ounce of effort in analysis, trawling through their web statistics via Google Analytics or Omniture.

In order to develop new and cleverer ways to expand their sites’ reach through better engineered keywords, they pay much attention to what keywords are attracting traffic to their sites. And it turns out, the words contained in some searches that web users tap into Google, Yahoo or any of the other search engines are actually quite funny.

Not only do the strange searches create for a humourous moment in a web marketers otherwise not too interesting profession, but it also highlights room for diversity in keyword development which is possibly why we see this topic talked about more and more.

Finding Funny Keywords a Pastime

Now worthy of at least one post in an SEO related blog, funny keywords have become a popular afterthought to the harder work of web traffic generation. In fact there are even websites dedicated to funny keywords.

Ranging from the weird to the wonderful, the keywords found in the research for this article included a host of themes and topics, from oddly arranged words to very specific questions. One can only imagine what was going through the minds of the Googlers who aome up with such bizarre concoctions of things to look up.

What Googlers Have Actually Searched for

Without further ado here is a random, non-categorised, completely non-ranked, impartial look at some funny keywords found on the web. In order to maintain the integrity of this site, the more garish, sexually natured keywords have been overlooked.

1. windows makes people untrusting of friends
2. i will meet you on march 2nd
3. how do you spell crown moulding
4. Alcohol Is Not The Answer
5.Best Ways To Kill My Boss
6.Sleeping In The Bathroom At Work
7.“si daca cizmele nu sunt o boala, atunci de ce sufletul este?” (translated: “And if boots are not a disease, then why is soul?”)
8. “hats with vote written on it”
9.“I guess I made a mistake”.
10. “ways to make 7 and 8″
11. "Why Does E = MC^2"
12. "Why Does she hates me?"
13. what can it mean when a man is intensely pursuing a woman and when she finally acts responsive he keeps pursing her but also tells her that he has a girlfriend?
14. blue things you might see at a lake
15. is it okay to run in sports bra with slightly flabby belly
16. a poem to make my woman take out the trash
17. my robot suit is squeeking
18. i dont need any of your sassy frass
19. hipwaders for short round people
20. a good recipe for donut holes

What possessed them to search such random ideas only they will know. At one time or another every search engine user must have looked up something a little bit strange. Have you?

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Generation Y

generation y

The rise of any co-culture is dependent on the social norms of a particular time period. Nowadays, the main source of recreation and study is the Internet. A hub for both entertainment and business, the Internet attracts millions of users daily. Many of these people belong to the Net Generation or Generation Y. Even though Generation Y is often misunderstood by older generations, they deeply value relationships and community.

Understanding the Status of the Net Generation

People in Generation Y, having matured during the information revolution of the late Eighties and early Nineties, are viewed as young because many of them still reside with their parents. If they are working , they tend to have low-leadership roles and do not have much on-the-job responsibilities.

Some people think that this generation holds fewer authority roles in the workplace and, as a result, makes less money. Generation Y is also an individualistic culture, since most of its members are aware of their status as Millenials. Other dominant cultures, like Baby Boomers and Generation X, judge the substance and relevancy of Generation Y.

Older members of society often categorize younger adults as being impetuous because they do not conform easily to groupthink. Generation Y is viewed as having thrill seekers who do not hold themselves accountable for their actions. Generation Y makes decisions based mainly on their group climate, which is known as the digital age.

The Effect of Media Communications in the Digital Age

During Web-based times, everything moves quickly, which makes Generation Y rush to solve problems. Lack of rational thought and impetuousness are stereotypical qualities of Generation Y that have been perpetuated by media communications in the Twenty-first Century.

Another perceived characteristic of Generation Y is obsession. Many people believe that this generation is obsessed with computers, the Internet, and other forms of electronic technology. From Facebook to Twitter, there are many online services that cater to this co-culture. Older generations find Generation Y preoccupied with digital tools, such as email, cell phones, and the World Wide Web.

The Solution to Stereotyping Millenials

The only way to stem the tide of generation stereotyping is to increase communication between co-cultures. This will reduce negative elements, such as prejudice and distrust. If people talk and listen, they can make interpersonal communication better. Feedback will flow easily along channels from the elderly to the young. Everyone will learn to appreciate differences.

Generation Y has often been described as immature, irrational, and obsessive. These stereotypes are based on false impressions fueled by the media or mass communication. People who live all over the world participate in selective perception of Generation Y.

Because of the rapidly advancing digital culture, Generation Y not only grows up faster, but also learns how to use technology earlier. Other co-cultures will better understand Generation Y, once they acknowledge these differences without fear or prejudice. Through active, interpersonal communication, the entire global community will be able to appreciate Generation Y.

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How Searching the Web Affects Long-term Brain Functioning

As technology becomes more and more integrated into daily life, parents and teachers worry that it is causing people to lose their ability to think. Will people have less able long term memories if they can instantly recall data via their iPhone? Will people lose their spatial awareness if they can program their GPS devices to direct them everywhere?

Two recent studies focused on Internet searching behavior shed light on the subject. Taken together, they show that while extended use of new technologies definitely affects the brain, the effect is neither negative nor positive. The human brain has always learned from and adapted to new circumstances. More important to long-term brain behaviors and abilities is the interaction between an Internet search and the user’s goal.

Searching the Internet to Learn

Researchers at Penn State have sought to define Internet search behavior in terms of a learning model. People have different learning reasons for searching the Internet at different times, and thus different brain functioning. In their study, “Using the taxonomy of cognitive learning to model online searching,” (Elsevier, June 2009) Jensen et al. asked participants to complete Internet searches designed to access specific low to high levels of learning – remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing, evaluating, and creating.

The Task Determines the Search Behavior

Researchers tracked “number of queries, query length, unique terms, number of topics, session duration, [and] number of result pages viewed” for each of 476 searching tasks to determine whether different learning goals resulted in different types of searches. When participants were applying and analyzing they used more search terms, stayed online longer, and found more sources of information than when remembering and understanding. This difference is not entirely unexpected since applying and organizing are higher level tasks than remembering and understanding.

Interestingly, evaluating and creating (the highest level tasks) looked similar to remembering and understanding in terms of online searching behavior. The researchers hypothesize that when users evaluate or create, they look for facts in their online searches. They then rely on their own intellect, creativity, and decision making skills to complete the tasks offline.

The Penn State study showed that people’s behavior varies according to the task at hand. Thus, people are adapting new technologies to their own unique purposes rather than blindly following links. At UCLA’s Center for Aging, Dr. Gary Small and his colleagues proved that not only does only behavior vary, but brain patterns can vary as well.

Online Searching Activates the Brain

In “Your Brain on Google: Patterns of Cerebral Activation during Internet Searching,” (American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, February 2009), Small et al. reported that conducting online searches activates all of the same brain functioning as reading plus some more. The researchers performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRIs) on subjects age 55-75 while they did two different tasks – searching the Internet for information requested by the researchers and reading a text about the same information.

Both tasks activated brain regions controlling language, reading, memory and visual functioning. For half of the subjects in the study, the Internet was a relatively unfamiliar experience. The other half of the subjects were considered experienced Internet users. For the experienced Internet users only, the search for information activity also activated areas of the brain controlling decision making and complex reasoning.

Seniors can use the Internet to Problem Solve

Just as in the Penn State study, users were not simply pointing and clicking, but using the Internet to augment a problem solving process. The authors cautiously attribute the results to the specific nature of the Internet and suggest that it may be helpful for aging adults to learn to use the Internet in order to alter their brains’ abilities to problem solve.

These studies point to the fact that new technologies are neither brain destroying nor brain enhancing. Rather, it is the task that matters. Searching to learn, expanding one’s horizons, stretching one’s intellect, and trying unfamiliar tasks exercise the brain whether they are done online or with traditional tools like encyclopedias and newspapers.

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Has Google Grown Too Big?

Google is starting to look like Microsoft in the mid-1990s, say some business experts, and that may or may not be a good thing.


"There are many parallels between Google and a young Microsoft when it was a hip teenager," says Andrea Matwyshyn, Wharton School professor of legal studies and business ethics at the University of Pennsylvania. "The risk to Google is not learning from Microsoft's mistakes."

Google Challenges Technology Services Leaders

In 1998, Microsoft lost a lawsuit to Netscape when Microsoft attempted to strangle the competition by bundling Internet Explorer into the Windows operating system. Then, in 2002, an antitrust suit against the software giant forced Microsoft to share its application interfaces with third parties.

Now, Google is tangling with Microsoft by playing the same game. Google’s recent expansion into productivity software combined with its dominance in the search business has pushed Microsoft and Yahoo together into creating a competitive search engine, Bing. That venture is now under review by the U.S. Justice Department.

And now, it appears that Google is taking on Apple.

Apple refused to approve Google Voice to run on it’s popular iPhone because, Apple said, it replaced iPhone's distinctive user interface with Google's own interface for telephone calls, text messaging and voicemail.

The Key to Search Engine Advertising is Mobile

The mobile market is one that Google cannot afford to ignore. According to recent statistics, mobile phone users accessing a search engine through their device has increased by approximately 71% in the last year and use of a mobile to access internet content has doubled in the same time period.

Access to the mobile market is vital because most businesses see the future of advertising there, says Eric Bradlow, a marketing professor at Wharton. Mobile access is the means to access consumers often and while the are more likely to be in the mood to purchase.

What makes Google different in this competition is that Google comes at everything it does with advertising at its core, say technology experts at Wharton.

Google isn’t interested in the hardware business, says Wharton management professor, David Hsu, Google just wants the information and advertising.

“Google is very much in business against any company that may interrupt its core search advertising model."

The Saving Grace of Google’s Search Engine Popularity

This ambition of Google’s could be good for the consumer. As the technology giants battle for market share, consumers will reap the benefits of more options becoming available to them.

But, since the Google collects so much information, it’s possible that one day it will be able to guess a user’s intentions from search behaviour, emails and text messages, and with that convenience comes privacy concerns.

Eric Clemons, an operations and information management professor at Wharton, says that Google’s brilliance lies in its popularity. It may never know any backlash from regulators or consumers because of its popularity.

"Google is as beloved as can be," Clemons says. “And now Google has created the illusion that Google is giving you something for free. But nothing is really free."

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    Google Voice

    Google Voice

    According to PC World's annually published article “100 Best Products of the Year,” in 2016, the product to rank in at #2, just behind the #1 Apple App Store, was Google's free call forwarding service, Google Voice. Google Voice's myriad of useful features, straightforward setup, and price tag of zero all contribute to why this service deserves its number two ranking.

    A Single, Convenient Phone Number

    Google Voice's concept is a simple one. Users sign up, they get a free, unique US phone number of their choosing, and then never have to give out multiple phone numbers again.

    With this service, users get a unique phone number that, whenever called, rings all of the phone numbers that they specify. No longer does someone need to manage his or her home phone, cell phone, work phone, and work cell phone numbers, because when the user's Voice number is called, all of his numbers will ring, ensuring a connection the first time.

    Great Call Quality

    Since Google Voice only acts as a proxy for phone calls, not as an actual phone service provider, call quality is just as clear as the user's cell phone or land line call quality. After someone dials a Google Voice number, the Voice system prompts him to state his name to be announced to the subscriber.

    The Voice system then connects to the phone number that the subscriber specifies and the Google Voice system leaves the call. The caller is then speaking directly to the subscriber, the Voice system only intervening if the subscriber chooses to use one of Google Voice's in-call features.

    Huge Range of Features

    One of the best things about the Google Voice service is that Google provides many, many free features for subscribers to use. From Voice's call recording feature that allows users to record a consersation mid-call and play it back later, to the accurate voicemail transcription feature, this service is worth using just for all of the extras that Google provides.

    With Google Voice, a subscriber gets a voicemail inbox with free voicemail transcription, free text messaging to any mobile phone, call screening, conference calling, and the ability to block calls at a whim. All of these features are completely free, making Google Voice the best call forwarding service money can't buy.

    Google Voice's call free service is without a doubt the best free call forwarding service on the internet or otherwise. With a myriad of useful and effective features, quick and easy setup, and no hidden fees, Google Voice certainly simplifies its users' lives. Anyone looking to make his life easier with the convenience of one central number and dozens of straightforward features should definitely check out Google Voice.


    Animals Personality Tests for You Explained

    Animal Personality tests explained
    The Animal In You test takes into account the social and biological factors that go into the making of one’s personality. Who hasn’t ever wondered about the peculiar animal traits displayed by spouses and bosses? To feed the curiosity and to add to the fun factor there is a boom of various versions of this personality test.

    The Animal in You by Roy Feinson

    ‘The Animal In You’ by Roy Feinson has been described as “the ultimate party book”. The elaborate personality test in the book has been simplified for the internet. Owing to its popularity the book has been translated into more than twelve languages. It got wide media coverage through CNN and Dr. Phil’s show and various others television and radio channels.

    Traits Taken into Account for The Animal In You Personality Test
    The various biological and social factors that have been taken into account to design the test are aggression, gregariousness, attractiveness, dependability, intelligence, athletic ability, life success, love of travel. These traits are said to run common among all species of the eco-system.

    How does the Animal In you Personality Test Work?
    The test working is based on algorithm. The personal data entered by the test takers is converted mathematically. The test compares it with the database of animal profiles already available. The final step is to match up the user data with the closest resembling animal profile. The results are mostly accurate and suitable. One may get mere than one result but it is only to one animal that his personality completely matches up with.

    The Animal Database for the Animal in You Personality Test
    Most versions of the test have a database of about four dozen animals. They are categorized in the broadly as birds, reptiles, carnivores, insectivores and rodents and herbivores.

    The Many Versions of The Animal in You Personality Test

    This test has several versions. Various sites have come up with different designs of the test. The traffic to this immensely popular test increases viewer ship and revenue of the sites that offer this test. Apparently diverse looking with diverse format and question set all the Animal in You Quizzes work with the same methodology and give similar results.
    The Animal in You Test is meant to be a fun application. Owing to its universal nature it has appealed all classes of people and has recently gained immense popularity over the internet.
    Some of the related Animal in You tests are:


    Apple iPad Unboxing Videos: It's a Man Thing

    Ipad Unboxing Video

    There are currently more than 14,000 videos of newly purchased iPads being unboxed on Youtube. One well known Apple lover and gadget enthusiast filming himself (undoubtedly from his iPhone) is Stephen Fry , who offers no commentary, but can be heard gasping in wonder as he slowly unpeels the outer layers. So what is the allure? Why are so many people (mostly men) including this strip tease as part of their video review of Apple's latest device?

    Marketing Functions of iPad Unboxing Videos

    According to Leslie Scrivener of the Toronto Star, there are many reasons for filming the unboxing of new gadgets. First, everyday users want an "unbiased", unsponsored", and "unvarnished reaction" to their purchase (23). Instead of ripping off the packaging like a child at Christmas, the process is slowed and ritualized. Each step is savoured, commented upon, or expressed in audible sounds of approval or curiosity.

    For others, an iPad unboxing video functions as a marketing tool. For individuals who cultivate twitter followers and Facebook friends, the video can be easily spread to a ready-made audience. It can also draw new viewers to a business or project that is being promoted on the web. For those who work in technology and gadgets, the unboxing process, from removing it from its shopping bag, to turning it on, is an essential part of the review.

    Marketing experts claim that the pleasure in the filming of the unboxing ritual is the shared experience. Watching someone unpacking desired gadgets creates a longing to own one too. And it is this "sense of communal pleasure" that is so alluring (Scrivener, p.23).

    However, other gadget fans are not so convinced. One twitter follower of The Guardian Technology Blog claimed that unboxing videos are "pathetic". "Do running buffs video themselves opening a new box of shoes?

    Do scotch snobs video themselves opening a new box of single malt?" So, besides wanting to provide an unbiased review of the product, or use the video for marketing purposes, why do so many men bother?

    Apple Ipad Unboxing Video as Virtual Strip Tease

    One explanation lies in the cliché "sex sells". Labelled "Geek Porn" by Gear Live Magazine, the unboxing video tantalizes viewers because gadgets lovers want information on the newest products (Scrivener, p. 23). However, viewers also watch the videos over and over; and the language used to describe the unboxing phenomenon suggest it is more than information that viewers are after. Words such as "strip tease", "porn", and the "slow reveal" taps into what "stippers have been trading on for ages", the performance and the anticipation of the prize (Arthur).

    The idea of performance is relevant to the unboxing video. According to recent research by a UCLA Psychology Professor, Patricia Greenfield, virtual intimacy is potentially set to replace human intimacy: "Instead of connecting with friends with whom you have close ties for the sake of the exchange itself, people interact with their 'friends' as a performance, as if on a stage before an audience of people on the network" (Siegal).

    Read this: “Slow iPhone” Phenomena Explained


    Just as user's unboxing videos are a performance set on a cyber-stage, so too, do they offer a virtual experience of an intimate encounter. Sharing a video of slowly removing the latest gadget from its packaging mimicks the shared experience of an audience watching a strip tease. As Arthur alludes to, it is ultimately for the pleasure of the performance and anticipation that iPad users video themselves and viewers watch these unveilings over and over again.


    3 Ways to Generate FarmVille Money

    FarmVille Money
    Many people are interested in methods that can help them generate more Farm money, and many of them scour the net for Farmville tricks to help them out. Before we take a look at some of the above-board tricks, let us understand what Farm coins and Farm cash mean.

    In basic terms, Farm cash refers to the money you earn on Farmville to enable you to purchase restricted edition items. For example, you can use this virtual money to get alternative editions of some products or even purchase the fuel that your vehicles need. On the other hand, Farm coins refer to the money you need to purchase things that will help you to generate more money (Farm cash).

    Now, here are some helpful tricks that will help generate more Farm cash.

    Fill Out Surveys

    A simple way of generating more FV money is to fill surveys and different types of quizzes. You can choose free, cell telephone, or paid offers. Note that many cell telephone offers require subscription, so you need to consider the offer you are taking carefully to avoid any surprises.

    Level up

    You will win one Farm cash each time you manage to level up and a good way of leveling up is to amass XP points. This is a relatively new feature that you can take advantage of if you are just starting out.

    Purchase FV cash

    While many people do not know it, you can actually use real money to purchase Farm cash. You will have the opportunity to get some pretty items as you increase your Farm cash. The prices are relatively low, so you will not have to spend a lot of your money. But then again, this is where they "Get cha"

    Use Farmville Techniques Guide

    Perhaps you are not prepared to spend your real money for the virtual one or you do not want to spend your time doing the other tricks mentioned above. You can still use the Farmville Techniques Guide to learn about other secrets that will help you to have the best experience possible.

    The guide will show you some of the best tricks that even seasoned players use in getting free Farm cash.

    You will learn about some of the most powerful secrets on generating lots of Farm cash without getting involved in any backdoor practice.

    It isn't hard to earn Farm Cash and their are many ways to do it, the trick is earning a lot of it to get those really cherry items.


    Accessing Extinct Websites

    While on the Internet a user clicks on a favorite/bookmark. The dreaded “Error 404 Not Found” message appears in the browser window. If the URL is correct and the site truly existed in the past there is hope. The data may still be viewable.

    Extinct Websites
    The web is always changing. Perhaps the desired webpage has changed from the last visit. It was just three days ago that the site was visited and contained vital information for successful completion of a project or a quote for a report. It has been replaced with new content, a new design, a new web master. This site too may be recoverable.

    Perhaps the problem is as simple as a server has gone down and service is expected back soon(?). The information from the site is needed now, not 3 hours or 3 days from now. The data from this site also may be retrievable before the server is up and running again.

    Note: For the sake of brevity, the term “dead site” will be used to refer to sites not immediately available for any of the above reasons.

    Two Methods for Recovering Lost Sites

    There are two resources that can be used to attempt retrieval of dead websites. The differences between the two tend to compliment, or supplement, the other.
    • Search Engines
    • Web Archive Sites

    Using Search Engines to View Dead Sites

    Many search engines create a cache of any website viewed by users. The four most popular search engines, as well as many others have this ability.
    • Ask
    • Bing
    • Google
    • Yahoo!
    Each search engine has its own criteria and time limit for caching pages. The following procedure can be used to view search engine caches.
    1. Type in search criteria.
    2. After discovery of dead site, return to search citations.
    3. Near the end of the citation there will be a hyperlink marked “Cache,” “Cached page”, or a similar phrase.
    4. Click on this hyperlink.
    5. The page will show up as it appeared the last time it was cached. The cached view will usually be from sometime in the last 7 months.

    Using a Web Archive Site to Retrieve Dead Websites

    Web archive sites actually archive websites over time. When a change to a site is made it is added to the archive. This can be useful not only for accessing dead sites but also for viewing changes that have taken place to the website over the years and getting a historical overview of the site’s evolution.

    Perhaps the best known and popular of these archive sites is The Wayback Machine. It archives web sites back to 1996. It boasts 150 billion archived pages that fill up roughly 2 petabytes (1 petabyte equals 10 to the 15th power). To access these archived pages:
    • Open The Wayback Machine home page.
    • Type the URL in the search box
    • If the URL is archived, The Wayback Machine will display a table of dates, separated by yearly columns, of links to the site. An asterisk (*) appears next to dates the site was updated.
    • Click on the desired date and a view of the site, as it appeared on that date, will appear.
    Image 1 is the top portion of the United States White House home page as it appeared on February 29, 2000. Image 2 is the top portion of the United States White House home page as it appeared on December 3, 2009. Image 1 was found using The Wayback Machine.

    Limitations When Viewing Cached or Archived Sites

    Even with the vast resources of the most powerful search engines and 150 billion pages in the Wayback Machine, there are limitations. Here are a few
    • The site may not be cached or archived.
    • The site was cached (by search engine) before or after the data searched for was on the site.
    • Cached files from search engines have only one view.
    • Links in archived files might be dead and also require an archive search of their own.
    • Images may no longer be stored causing empty graphic boxes to appear.
    • Some sites carry a “robots.txt” message that prevents them from being indexed.
    • Most search engine caches are less than seven months old.
    • Archive results are usually at least six months old.
    The more recent dates will provide more images and functional links than those sites several years old. Knowing how to use both the search engine cache and an archive website can make researching formerly inaccessible sites more successful.


    Advantages Of Metro Ethernet over T1 or T3 (DS3)

    metro ethernet
    More and more business operations of modern days rely on the Internet connectivity. The resource hungry technologies that play an integral role in today's businesses have made it inevitable to embrace the newer and more advanced methods of connectivity between operational sites. The speed of business and the reliability of data transfers have become most important factors of business operation thus requiring the implementation of better connectivity modes over WAN.

    Though a large amount of carrier bandwidth is available at decent prices, the metropolitan connectivity is affected by last mile delay. This has a significant impact on the overall operation of the WAN. An easy and cost effective transition to Metro Ethernet could address this issue. Metro Ethernet is a carrier Ethernet technology that is built in accordance with the WAN (Wide Area Network) implementation requirements and at the same time compatible with Ethernet used by the end systems. This Carrier Ethernet technology is provisioned for MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) connectively and hence the name Metro Ethernet.

    Metro Ethernet Advantages

    Speed issues with T1 and T3 lines: The main advantage of the Metro Ethernet over a T1 or T3 line is the carrier speed. Generally, T1 lines run at a fixed speed of 1.5 Mbps, which could further be increased by bonding several lines together to a maximum speed of 12Mbps. While better speeds could be achieved by bonding more T1 lines, it turns out to be very expensive by the time 10Mbps speed is achieved. A better and cost effective solution would be a T3 (Ds3) line with about 45Mbps over a fiber-optic cable.

    Metro Ethernet when provisioned over a fiber optic cable could provide a flexible variation of speeds equivalent to 10Mbps (Ethernet), 100Mbps (Fast Ethernet) and 10,000Mbps (Gigabit Ethernet). With such flexibility, Metro Ethernet further makes it desirable with lower costs in comparison to lease lines with T1 or T3 as the Metro Ethernet providers tend to have nationwide backbones and local fibers dedicated to the metropolitan areas.

    ME as a cost effective solution: Apart from the high speed advantages, Metro Ethernet also provides better and cost effective solutions to lower bandwidth requirements with the Ethernet over Copper (EoC). As the name suggests, the Ethernet over Copper is similar to T1 lines provisioned over multiple copper pairs but with a different modulation technology. The unique modulation of the EoC aids a more efficient packet transmission over lesser distances. Ethernet over Copper lines can be obtained at different transmission rates from 1Mbps to 50Mbps, generally charged per Mbps.

    Metro Ethernet Availability: Another advantage of the Metro Ethernet is the availability as other lease line connectivity modes like T1 and T3 are dependent on the phone lines provided but the telecom companies. Though it is rare to experience a downtime in lease line connectivity, any little down time could be disastrous to a large business or even a time sensitive small business.

    Metro Ethernet Limitations

    Though the Metro Ethernet lines can be obtained and operated at much lesser costs than T1 and T3 lines with equivalent speeds, it could be more profitable to keep T1 lines at a place where Metro Ethernet lines are yet to venture especially for lower speed requirements. This is due to the fact that the availability of Metro Ethernet connectivity is limited to availability of fiber-optic cables while the T1 and T3 connectivity could be achieved anywhere with a valid phone line.

    However, if a higher bandwidth is required, Metro Ethernet could be very effective both in the sense of total cost and availability. Hence a time sensitive and bandwidth hungry business would need Metro Ethernet connectivity, especially when the existing T1 and T3 lease line maintenance costs are crawling upwards due to bundling of lines.


    A Short History of Telecommunications

    The original intention of telephony was to interconnect people in the most efficient, least costly way.
    This started with the switchboard where an operator received calls (originally generated by a hand generator on the telephone set) and then through a plug based system, manually interconnected or switched the call to the wanted destination. The destination was communicated orally by the caller to the switchboard operator.

    The Strowger Switch

    At some point in time in a little town in the US, it so happened that there were two morticians and the wife of one of the morticians was the local switch operator. So whenever a call came in for mortician services, the operator made sure that the call terminated to the family funeral parlor.

    This particular favoritism angered the other mortician, named Almon Strowger. Strowger thus took the initiative to design an automatic system that allowed mechanical call interconnection eventually rendering the manual switchboard obsolete. This system became know as the Strowger switch and was indeed the first mechanical telephone interconnection system and predecessor to the present circuit switched telephony system.

    Stored Program Control (SPC)

    The Strowger switch, also brought forth in a primitive way the concept of equal access.

    The Strowger switch eventually gave way to crossbar architectures and with the advent of computer systems, the stored program control system eventually replaced crossbar technologies.

    Now the thing with stored program control (or SPC as its know in the industry) is that it was composed of segregated subsystems. You had a subsystem for SS7 signaling, a subsystem for voice interconnection (and by that time the common form of connection was through an aggregated (multiplexed) form of PCM (pulse code modulation)), a subsystem for supplementary services (such as call back, call waiting etc..), a subsystem for subscriber data, a subsystem for number translation/routing, a subsystem for operation and maintenance, and a whole other set of subsystems. All these subsystems where controlled/coordinated by a central control subsystem.

    So the switch basically contained in a vertical sort of way whatever was needed to ensure proper call processing and communication with other switches and the human environment .

    Typical SPC systems included the Ericsson AXE, the Alcatel System 12 (formerly ITT 1240) , the Motorola EMX, the Siemens EWSD, the Northern Telecom (Nortel) DMS, the Stromberg Carlsson DCO, the AT&T No. xx(eventually Lucent and now Alcatel-Lucent) and so forth.

    Asian Telecom Suppliers

    An interesting point is that Japanese manufacturers (for example Fujitsu and NEC) also became interested in the telecom game and started developing their own systems, but didn’t gain much headway in an industry that was dominated by European and American companies (as opposed to the success the Japanese have had in heavy industry (cars, steel) and electronics).

    Today, the Chinese (Huawei, ZTE) are experiencing tremendous success and have managed to change the rules of the game. Indeed, communication technology is no longer the prerogative of Europe and America.

    The network consisted of a number of these switches, means to interconnect them (a transmission network initially PDH and then SDH) and synchronize them (a master clock that coordinated the local switch clocks) as well as a central (and many regional) operation centers for monitoring (and upgrading) the status of the switches and the network as a whole.

    Telecom Deregulation, The FCC, and the Internet

    Now in the eighties and nineties a number of factors started disrupting this Euro American haven. First of all, we had Judge Greene and deregulation which forced the breakup of AT&T and brought forth a system of regional bells and inter-exchange carriers injecting an embryonic form of competition into the bell system (Europe followed later in its own way). This, through equal access, increased the need for services and features at an attractive price.

    The market from an economics perspective was also proven to be price sensitive, and the first signs of commoditization started appearing in voice services.

    In addition, new communications options coming in the form of mobile communication and companies (example Vodafone) that focused only on this form of communication. These companies started competing for customers and actually offered their services as replacement services to the traditional fixed line systems.

    Thirdly, the democrats (the Clinton administration) shifted investment from military technologies to communication/information technologies (the information superhighway) and a host of new proprietary military technologies became available for mass industrial deployment (example: CDMA).

    Entrepreneurship also grasped this new opportunity viewing the telecom market as virgin territory for their offering and started to convince the industry that IP was the way to go. The FCC had already provided the foundation for earlier on and the entrepreneurial spirit capitalized on this available foundation and the slow migration of the technology from the walled garden SS7 interconnection based concept to a more open architecture service based approach.
    Needless to say, the telecom game will never be the same.